Jedovatí savci

22. listopadu 2010 v 20:25 | forusrakos |  starší články
Jed je látka, která pomáhá živočichům k lovu nebo obraně. Ve spojitosti s jedem si většinou vybavujeme hady, štíry, medúzy, žáby, pavouky, ryby atd. Zjednodušeně tedy bezobratlé a vývojově primitivní obratlovce. Málokdo ale zná jedovaté savce.

Savci zdědili jedovatost po svých prvotních předcích. První savci připomínající hmyzožravce měli jedovaté sliny a snášeli vejce. Stejně jako ptakopysk podivný. U tohoto tvora už snad nikoho nic nepřekvapí, pomineme-li bizarní vzhled a fascinující způsob života, dostaneme se k podivným výrůstkům na zadních končetinách, které mají jenom samci. Tyto duté ostny s jedovou žlázou se jim skvěle hodí k soubojím o teritoria. Bodnutí tímto ostnem dokáže zabít zvíře velikosti psa. Pro člověka není smrtelný, ale způsobuje dlouhodobé otoky, v místě rány. U některých lidí může vyvolat velkou citlivost k bolesti. Nedávno se zjistilo, že ostny jsou vybaveni i samci ježur a paježur. Mají je ale na předních končetinách. Jejich jed je méně škodlivý, jeho význam u nich není známý. obrázek 1- ptakopysk podivný obrázek 2- ježura australská
Nejjedovatějším řádem savců jsou hmyzožravci. Jejich jed je vždy v ústní dutině. Buď je obsažen ve slinách, nebo je umístěn v jedové žláze ve spodních řezácích. Nejznámějšími jedovatými druhy jsou štětinatec, rejsek a rejsec. Štětinatci mají jed v řezácích a nejčastěji ho využívá k soubojím mezi sebou. Dokáží jím usmrtit zvíře stejné velikosti jako jsou oni sami. Člověku způsobí bolest a horečky. Rejsek má jed ve slinách a je o něco silnější. Kočky ani jiná zvířata ho po chycení nepožírají. U člověka způsobuje bolest a otoky. Jed rejsce je mezi hmyzožravci vůbec nejsilnější, dokáže zabít i zajíce. Člověku způsobí palčivou dlouhodobou bolest a slabé otoky. obrázek- rejsec vodní
Dokonce i primáti využívají k obraně jed. Poloopice outloň váhavý, není navzdory svému nevinnému vzhledu žádný svatoušek. Jejich pot smíchaný se slinami vytvoří páchnoucí sekret, kterým se potírají, aby si na ně dravci netroufli. Když musí samice opustit své mládě, potře ho potem a slinami. Něčeho tak páchnoucího se predátoři ani nedotknou. Člověk je vůči tomuto jedu imunní, u některých lidí ale může vyvolat alergickou reakci. obrázek
 

3 lidé ohodnotili tento článek.

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